In the year 1870, the Maharaja of Vijaynagaram conceived the idea to start a medical college in Lucknow. He offered to donate three lacs but due to lack of funds it was not passed by the then Government and the dream of the Maharaja was not fulfilled. It was in 1905, when Prince of Wales, came to India, the Raja of Jehangirabad and Sir Taussuduq Rasool requested the Raja of Ayodhya to persuade the Governor of Uttar Pradesh to recommend the establishment of the medical college to the Governor of India. This time the fund was sanctioned but with the condition that the people of United Provinces raise a sum of eight lacs. On 26th December 1906 on a plot of land donated by Uttar Pradesh Government on the banks of the River Gomti the Prince of Wales laid the foundation stone. Sir Swinton Jacob, the famous architect designed the building in Indo-Saracenic style so that the building gelled with the city of nawabs.
The Lt. Governor of United Provinces, Sir John Prescott Hewett formally inaugurated the medical college on October 1911. Initially, the college was affiliated to the Allahabad University. The first postgraduate examination in Medicine and Pathology in the college was held in 1918. The first hospital associated with Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University was built in 1914 and was called King George Hospital. In 1921, the Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University and the King George's Hospital were formally transferred to the Lucknow University. The other hospitals, which were later inaugurated, were Queen's Mary Hospital on 4th November 1932 and in 1951 the Gandhi Memorial Hospital. The name of the King George's Hospital was changed to Gandhi Memorial and Associated Hospitals. In 1949 dental education was started in the King George's Medical College and in the year 1980, the department was upgraded to a separate faculty of Dental Sciences.
The period of 1981 to 1992, the college and hospital were taken over by the State Government and all administrative control came under the State Government instead of the Lucknow University. However, on 16th December 2002, the institution was converted as the Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University with substantial funds earmarked for its development. The first Vice Chancellor of this University was Prof. K.M. Singh. In December 2003, the old name of the institution was restored and it came to be known as the King George Medical University. However, in 2007, the name of the institution was changed to Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University.
Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University is situated in the center of Lucknow. Sprawling over an area of 100,000 square meters the campus consists of various departments. There are separate buildings for surgery, medicines, Pediatrics, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Cardiology, Neurology, Psychiatry, Neuro Surgery, Plastic Surgery, Rheumatology, Geriatric Mental Health, Surgical Oncology, Chest Medicine, Pathology, Pharmacology, Anesthesiology, Ophthalmology, Urology and Community Medicine.
The college has a rich alumni base who has made India proud with their various achievements.