The playing area includes the playing court and the free zone. It is rectangular and symmetrical.
The playing court is a rectangle measuring 18 x 9 m, surrounded by a free zone which is a minimum of 3 m wide on all sides. The free playing space is the space above the playing area which is free from any obstructions. The free playing space shall measure a minimum of 7 m in height from the playing surface.
The surface must be flat, horizontal and uniform. It must not present any danger of injury to the players. It is forbidden to play on rough or slippery surfaces.
Lines on the Court
All lines are 5 cm wide. They must be of a light colour which is different from the colour of the floor and from any other lines.
Two sidelines and two end lines mark the playing court. Both sidelines and end lines are drawn inside the dimensions of the playing court.
The axis of the centre line divides the playing court into two equal courts measuring 9 x 9 m each; however the entire width of the line is considered to belong to both courts equally. This line extends beneath the net from sideline to sideline.
On each court, an attack line, whose rear edge is drawn 3 m back from the axis of the centre line, marks the front zone.
Zones and Areas
Penalty area: A penalty area, sized approximately 1 x 1 m and equipped with two chairs, is located in the control area, outside the prolongation of each end line. They may be limited by a 5 cm wide red line.
Net and Posts
Height of the Net
: Placed vertically over the centre line there is a net whose top is set at the height of 2.43 m for men and 2.24 m for women. Its height is measured from the centre of the playing court. The net height (over the two sidelines) must be exactly the same and must not exceed the official height by more than 2 cm.
: The net is 1 m wide and 9.50 to 10 metres long (with 25 to 50 cm on each side of the side bands), made of 10 cm square black mesh. At its top a horizontal band, 7 cm wide, made of two-fold white canvas, is sewn along its full length. Each extreme end of the band has a hole, through which passes a cord, fastening the band to the posts for keeping its top taut. Within the band, a flexible cable fastens the net to the posts and keeps its top taut. At the bottom of the net there is another horizontal band, 5cm wide, similar to the top band, through which is threaded a rope. This rope fastens the net to the posts and keeps its lower part taut.
: Two white bands are fastened vertically to the net and placed directly above each sideline. They are 5 cm wide and 1 m long, and are considered as part of the net.
: An antenna is a flexible rod, 1.80 m long and 10 mm in diameter, made of fibreglass or similar material. An antenna is fastened at the outer edge of each side band. The antennae are placed on opposite sides of the net. The top 80 cm of each antenna extends above the net and is marked with 10 cm stripes of contrasting colour, preferably red and white. The antennae are considered as part of the net and laterally delimit the crossing space.
The posts supporting the net are placed at a distance of 0.50-1.00 m outside the sidelines. They are 2.55 m high and preferably adjustable.
The ball shall be spherical, made of flexible leather or synthetic leather case with a bladder inside made of rubber or a similar material. Its colour may be a uniform light colour, or a combination of colours. Synthetic leather material and colour combinations of balls used in International Official competitions should comply with FIVB standards its circumference is 65-67 cm and its weight is 260-280 g. It`s inside pressure shall be 0.30 to 0.325 kg/cm2
A team may consist of a maximum of 12 players, one coach, one assistant coach, one trainer and one medical doctor. For FIVB World and Official Competitions, the medical doctor must be accredited beforehand by the FIVB. One of the players, other than the Libero (each team has the right to designate among the list of 12 players one (1) specialised defensive player "Libero". The Libero must be recorded on the score sheet before the match in the special line reserved for this. The Libero is allowed to replace any player in a back row position), is the team captain, who shall be indicated on the score sheet.
A player`s equipment consists of a jersey, shorts, socks (the uniform) and sport shoes. The colour and the design for the jerseys, shorts and socks must be uniform for the team (except for the Libero). The uniforms must be clean. The shoes must be light and pliable with rubber or leather soles without heels.
Both the team captain and the coach are responsible for the conduct and discipline of their team members. The Libero cannot be the team captain.
To Score a Point, to win a set and the Match
To Score a Point
: A team scores a point
By successfully grounding the ball on the opponent`s court;
When the opponent team commits a fault;
When the opponent team receives a penalty
: A team commits a fault by making a playing action contrary to the rules (or by violating them in some other way). The referees judge the faults and determine the consequences according to the rules:
If two or more faults are committed successively, only the first one is counted.
If two or more faults are committed by opponents simultaneously, a DOUBLE FAULT is called and the rally is replayed.
Consequences of Winning a Rally
A rally is the sequence of playing actions from the moment of the service hit by the server until the ball is out of play. If the serving team wins a rally, it scores a point and continues to serve. If the receiving team wins a rally, it scores a point and it must serve next.
To Win a Set
A set (except the deciding, 5th set) is won by the team which first scores 25 points with a minimum lead of two points. In the case of a 24-24 tie, play is continued until a two-point lead is achieved (26-24; 27-25 ;...).
To Win the Match
The match is won by the team that wins three sets. In the case of a 2-2 tie, the deciding set (the 5th) is played to 15 points with a minimum lead of 2 points.
At the moment the ball is hit by the server, each team must be positioned within its own court in the rotational order (except the server). The positions of the players are numbered as follows:
The three players along the net are front-row players and occupy positions 4 (front-left), 3 (front-centre) and 2 (front-right);
The other three are back-row players occupying positions 5 (back-left), 6 (back-centre) and 1 (back-right).
Rotational order is determined by the team`s starting line-up, and controlled with the service order, and players` positions, throughout the set. When the receiving team has gained the right to serve, its players rotate one position clock-wise: the player in position 2 rotates to position 1 to serve; the player in position 1 rotates to position 6, etc
Time-out and Technical Time-outs
All time-outs that are requested last for 30 seconds. For FIVB World and Official Competitions, in sets 1-4, two additional 60-second "Technical Time-Outs" are applied automatically when the leading team reaches the 8th and 16th points. In the deciding (5th) set, there are no "Technical Time-Outs"; only two time-outs of 30 seconds duration may be requested by each team. During all time-outs, the players in play must go to the free zone near their bench.
Substitution of Players
A substitution is the act by which a player, other than the Libero or his/her replacement player, after being recorded by the scorer, enters the game to occupy the position of another player, who must leave the court at that moment. Substitution requires the referee`s authorization. Six substitutions is the maximum permitted per team per set. One or more players may be substituted at the same time
Intervals and Change of Courts
All intervals between sets last three minutes, during which, the change of courts and line up registrations of the teams on the score sheet are made. The interval between the second and the third sets can be extended up to 10 minutes by the competent body at the request of the organizer. After each set, the teams change courts, with the exception of the deciding set - where, once the leading team reaches 8 points, the teams change courts without delay and the player positions remain the same