(Last Updated on : 24/06/2011)
Jagadish Chandra Bose was a famous biologist, botanist, physicist and archaeologist. Jagadish Chandra Bose was also a writer of science fictions. He discovered that plants, respond to various stimuli. Jagadish Chandra Bose is considered as the 'Father of Radio Science'. His major achievement was to demonstrate the similarity of responses to stimulation between the living and the non-living as well as the fundamental similarity of responses in plant and animal tissues. He made significant contributions to microwave and radio optics.
Early Life of Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose was born on the 30th of November, 1858 in Bikrampur, now in Bangladesh. His father Bhagawan Chandra Bose was the Deputy Magistrate of Faridpur and also a respected leader of Brahmo Samaj
. Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose was admitted to a vernacular school upon Bhagawan Chandra's influence. Then after he went to Kolkata
to began a new chapter in his life at the very tender age of nine. In 1869, he joined the Hare School and later St. Xavier's school in Kolkata. In 1875, he was admitted to St. Xavier's College
to study B.A. Father Eugene Lafont of that college inspired Jagadish Chandra Bose to do study of natural science of Physics.
Jagadish Chandra Bose went to England for studying medicine at London University after receiving his B.A in science from University of Calcutta
in 1879. But he repeatedly fell ill. So he had to discontinue the course. Through the recommendation of his brother-in-law, Ananda Mohan Bose, he studied Natural Science in Christ Church College, Cambridge. He received the natural science Tripos from Cambridge. He passed the Bachelor of Science Examination of London University also.
Career of Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose was back in India. He joined as the professor of Physics of the Presidency College, Kolkata. At that time, the Indian teachers in the college were paid one third of what the British teachers were paid. So Jagadish Chandra Bose refused to accept his salary but worked for three years. He could not even get the scientific instruments that were required for research. Ultimately the authorities recognised Bose's importance and acknowledged him, providing him the full salary.
To widen his knowledge and discover new things, he wanted to do research. Jagadish Chandra Bose had no laboratory and he did not have the instruments. Even the college did not have a suitable laboratory. He had to perform his researches in a small 24 square foot room with equipments he made himself. . During the British Period nobody was expected to be favoured with a research laboratory or research grants. Bose confronted the circumstances and dominated over them.
Researches of Jagadish Chandra Bose
The first remarkable aspect of Jagadish Chandra Bose's microwave research was that he reduced the waves to the millimetre level about 5 mm wavelength. He knew that long waves were advantageous because of their great penetrative power but realised their disadvantages for studying the light like-properties of those electric waves.
In November 1894, Jagadish Chandra Bose ignited gunpowder and rang a bell at a distance using microwaves in wavelength in millimetre of range that was held in a public demonstration in the Town Hall of Kolkata, in the presence of Sir William Mackenzie, the Lieutenant Governor. Jagadish Chandra Bose is also considered as the inventor of wireless telegraphy. Bose was the first in the world to fabricate and demonstrate in public this. Next contribution of Jagadish Chandra Bose to science was in plant physiology. His various experiments showed that plants grow faster in pleasant music and its growth delayed in noise or harsh sound. In May 1895 Bose's first scientific paper 'On polarisation of electric rays by double-refracting crystals' was communicated to the Asiatic Society
of Bengal. In October 1895, his second paper was communicated to the Royal Society of London by Lord Rayleigh. Further, in December 1895, published Jagadish Chandra Bose's paper, 'On a new electro-polariscope' was published by the London journal the Electrician.
Bose also wrote 'Niruddesher Kahini' in 1896. It was the first major work in Bengali Science Fiction. In Bengali literature, he became the first science fiction writer.
Jagadish Chandra Bose was not in favour of patenting his invention. Finally upon the persuasion of Swami Vivekananda
, Sara Chapman Bull, one of his supporters, filed a patent for "detector for electrical disturbances", in the absence of Bose's knowledge. Thus Jagadish Chandra Bose was the first to get a US Patent. This move of
Swami Vivekananda provided much recognition to the Indian scientist who is considered the pioneer of wireless communication
Awards for Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose was honoured with 'Knighthood' by British governance in the year 1916. He was also honoured with the fellowship of the Royal Society in 1920 and has been the member of the Vienna Academy of Science. Bose has been the founding fellow of the National Institute of Sciences of India now known as the Indian National Science Academy. In 1929, he became a member of Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters. He also received Knighthood, in 1917. He was also considered as a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire. The Jagadish Bose National Science Talent Search Institute scholarship programme was started in West Bengal
to honour the memory of Jagadish Chandra Bose's birth anniversary, in 1958.
Personal Life of Jagadish Chandra Bose
In 1887, Jagadish Chandra Bose got married to Abala. She was the daughter of Brahmo reformer Durga Mohan Das. Abala Bose was a social worker well-known for her efforts in the field of women's education and for her contribution towards the poor condition of widows.
Till the very end of his life, Jagadish Chandra Bose was busy with his numerous researches. He died in November 23, 1937. Bose is now credited with the invention of the first wireless detection device and electromagnetic waves. Jagadish Chandra Bose is considered as forerunner in the field of biophysics.