Early Life of Muthulakshmi Reddy
Muthulakshmi was born in the princely state of Pudukottah in 1886. Her father was S. Narayanasami, a Brahmin and the principal of Maharaja's College. Her mother was Chandrammal, born to the Isai Velala caste, a caste whose women danced and sang in temples. S. Narayanasami broke with tradition and sent Muthulakshmi to school. The child's enthusiasm for learning was so great that Muthulakshmi's teachers decided to instruct her in subjects beyond those approved by her father. At the onset of puberty she was obliged to leave school, but tutoring continued at home. Chandrammal wanted to search for a bridegroom but Muthulakshmi had different aspirations. She expressed a need to be a different woman from the common lot. She pitied women for their subordination to men and inwardly rebelled whenever she heard people say that only boys needed education.
When Muthulakshmi passed the matriculation exam she applied for admission to Maharaja's College but her application was not welcomed by the principal at the time or the parents of other students. Her gender was a factor and so was her background. The principal thought she might "demoralize" the male students. The somewhat enlightened Maharaja of Pudukottah ignored these objections, admitted her to the college, and gave her a scholarship. Her father suggested she become a school teacher but she had higher aspirations. She entered Madras Medical College, completed her studies in 1912, and became house surgeon in the Government Hospital for Women and Children in Chennai. She later married Dr. D. T. Sandara Reddy on the demand that he promised to "always respect me as an equal and never cross my wishes." In 1914, when she was twenty-eight years of age, they married in accordance with the 1872 Native Marriage Act.
Influences on Muthulakshmi Reddy
During her college years, Muthulakshmi met Sarojini Naidu and began to attend women's meetings. She found women who shared her personal concerns and addressed them in terms of women's rights. The two great personalities who influenced her life were Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Annie Besant. They persuaded her to devote herself for the upliftment of women and children. She worked for women's emancipation at a time when women were confined in the four walls of their room.
Reform Works of Muthulakshmi
She went to England for higher studies and she gave up her rewarding practice in medicine in response to a request from the Women's Indian Association (WTA) to enter the Madras Legislative Council. She was elected unanimously as its Deputy President. She led the agitation for municipal and legislative franchise for women. She was concerned about the orphans, especially girls. She arranged for them free boarding and lodging and started the Avvai Home in Chennai.
Muthulakshmi was the author of numerous social reforms. Her book 'My Experience as a Legislator' records all her services in the Legislature. She passed a resolution to establish a special hospital for women and children. The then Government accepted her suggestion and opened a children's section in the maternity hospital. She recommended systematic medical inspection of students in all schools and colleges, run by municipalities as well as other local bodies. Kasturba Hospital at Triplicane is a monument to her efforts.
Muthulakshmi Reddy was the President of the All-India Women's Conference. She passed the Bill for the suppression of brothels and immoral trafficking in women and children. A home for rescued girls and women were opened through her efforts to provide shelter to women and girls rescued from brothels. Due to her efforts a hostel for Muslim girls was opened and scholarships were given for Harijan girls. She recommended to the Government that the minimum age for marriage be raised to at least 21 for boys and 16 for girls.
Muthulakshmi also started the Cancer Relief fund. This has now developed into an all-India institution combining therapy and research on cancer and attracting patients from all over India. She became the first Chairperson of the State Social Welfare Board. Her work on the Hartog Education Committee, which incorporated a study of educational progress in India, is a great achievement. As a member of the Hartog Committee she travelled extensively and studied the progress of women's education throughout the country. She was the only woman member of the committee and brought about many improvements. She was also the editor of Roshini, an important journal of AIWC.
Muthulakshmi Reddy continued to fight for her cause till the end of her days and never let anything come in her way. Even at the age of 80, she was energetic and vibrant. Her human preoccupations took her away from politics and she stuck to her mission and Gandhian ways. She was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the President of India in 1956. Her two outstanding monumental gifts for humanity remain the Avvai Home (for children) and the Cancer Institute.