(Last Updated on : 08/11/2013)
History of Haryana
spans over a long period of time starting form the Vedic Period
. The state is a combination of antiquity and abundance. Various myths, legends ands texts testify that Haryana has always been a place of glory. It owns the pride of being the place were Mahabharata
was written by saint Ved Vyas
and Lord Krishna
gave preaching to Arjuna
before the battle of Mahabharata. The people of Haryana have successfully fought and won over the foreign invaders showcasing the heroism of the great leaders of the state. It is also the birthplace of several great poets like Surdas, who have enriched the cultural heritage of the state.
Early History of Haryana
During Vedic period, the region of Haryana was inhabited by the people of Indus Valley Civilisation
. Evidences of establishments have been found in Bhiwani district
, Hisar district
, Fatehabad district
, Sirsa district
and Rohtak district
. Gurgaon was the village of Guru Dronacharya
in ancient times. Certain ancient texts mention that the state of Haryana roughly corresponds to the boundaries of Kurukshetra
. According to the great epic Mahabharata, Haryana has been mentioned as Bahudhhanyaka, which refers to the land of plentiful grains, and Bahudhana, which means the land of immense riches. Numerous places of the modern day, Haryana has been mentioned in Mahabharata including Sonprastha (Sonipat
), Panprastha (Panipat), Tilprastha (Tilput) and Prithudaka (Pehowa). Kurukshetra is also the site where the great battle of the Pandavas
and the Kauravas
took place. It is also believed that a flourishing city of merchants was established by Maharaja Agrasen in ancient times at Agroha
which is near modern Hisar. According to the legends, whoever wished to settle in the city was given a rupee and a brick by all the residents of the city for building his house and starting a business.
Medieval History of Haryana
In 7th century AD king Harshavardhana
made Thanesar, near Kurukshetra, his capital. Following his death, the Pratiharas reigned over large areas for some time from the adopted capital of Harshavardhana, Kannauj
. This region always served as an important centre of the rulers of northern India. In 12th century, forts were established by Prithviraj Chauhan
at Hansi and Taraori. After the Second Battle of Tarain
the area was conquered by Muhammad Ghori
. Afterwards, the region was captured by the Delhi Sultanate
. A Sanskrit inscription of 1328 AD says that the place was quite fertile and peaceful during that time. In 1354, forts were erected at Hisar by Firoz Shah Tughlaq
. He also constructed canals known as rajwahas. The modern town of Panipat has also been the witness of three famous battles of Panipat. The place was also ruled by the Marathas in medieval era.
Modern History of Haryana
During the indirect rule of British Empire in India
, before 1857, Haryana was a part of Dilli Subha which was located between 28th and 31st degrees of north latitude at that time. During this time, major part of Haryana was included in the Punjab
province and some of its regions were ruled by the princely states of Patiala
, Nabha and Loharu. Numerous leaders belonging to this region actively participated in the Indian rebellion of 1857
. Haryana also took part in the Indian freedom struggle
including the farmers and the Kings of territories. With their contribution, they also defeated the British army at a number of places. Some of the significant battles took place in Hissar, Sirsa, Rohtak and Sonipat.
Formation of Haryana State
Haryana was carved out as an independent state on 1st November 1966 on the recommendation of Sardar Hukam Singh
Parliamentary Committee. As per the report of the committee Karnal
, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Mahendragarh
and Hissar were included in the state.
Haryana has always been the home to diverse customs, races and faiths which merged to form the vibrant facet of Indian culture. Sikh Gurus
and Hindu saints have played a crucial role in propagating the feeling of brotherhood among the people. Haryana has thus undergone several transformations under the influences of different rulers and inhabitants over time and has travelled towards modernity.