(Last Updated on : 10/01/2013)
was introduced into India in the 7th century A.D. with the advent of the Arabs. Although it was practised by the Delhi Sultan, the Khiljis, the Tughlaqs but it developed significantly during the period of Mughal Dynasty
. The Mughal rulers took keen interest in its growth and expansion and invited distinguished physicians in their courts. An account of some of the prominent physicians who served in the courts of the rulers is elucidated below:
The notable physicians during the reign of Babur
have been mentioned below:
Hakim Amir Abul Baqa
Hakim Amir Abul Baqa was one of the early physicians to arrive in the court of Babur.
Hakim Yusuf Bin Muhammad Bin Yusuf Al-Harawi
Hakim Yusuf Bin Muhammad Bin Yusuf Al-Harawi was the son of Hakim Muhammad Bin Yusuf. He was appointed as the personal physician of the Emperor.
During the reign of Humayun
the renowned physician, Khawaja Khawind Mahmud came from Persia to India. Another notable philosopher and physician in his court was Maulana Muhammad Fazl. In 1539 he compiled an encyclopaedia on twelve different subjects that also included medicine. He was known as Humayuni.
Akbar was a lover of arts and science and greatly patronised them. Unani medicine developed significantly during his reign due the remarkable contributions made by several notable physicians in his court.
Hakim Shams al-Din Gilani
The Hakim came from Gilan in Persia to India during the reign of Akbar. He was a student of Shaykh Muhammad Shahabadi.
Hakim Humam was one of the 'Nine Gems' of Akbar's Court. He was a notable physician of his time.
Hakim Abul Fath Gilani
Hakim Abul Fath Gilani attained a high position in Akbar's Court. He had authored few books such as Fattahi (commentary on al-Qanun), Qyasiya (commentary on Akhtaq-i Nasiri), Char Bagh, and Sharh-i Qanuncha.
Muzaffar Bin Muhammad al-Husaini al-Shifai
Muzaffar Bin Muhammad al-Husaini al-Shifai is one of the best known pharmacists during the time of Shah Abbas Safavi of Persia. He composed a pharmacopoeia, in 1556, which he named after himself Tibb-i Shifai (Medicine of Shifai).
Besides these some other distinguished physicians in the court of Akbar were, Hakim Amir Fathullah Shirazi, Hakim Masih al-Din Abul Fath Gilani, Hakim Ayn al-Mulk Shirazi, Hakim Najib al-Din Humam, Hakim Nur al-Din Qarari, Hakim Lutfullah, Hakim Ali Gilani, Hakim Faghfur Lahijani, Hakim Muzaffar Bin Muhammad Al-Hussayni Al-Shafai, Hakim Hadhiq, Hakim Muhammad Nafis Gilani, Hakim Zanbil, Hakim Dawai, Hakim Muhammad Baqar and Hakim Jabrail.
Emperor Nur-ud-din Jahangir
upon ascending the Mughal throne issued the famous "Akham-e-dawazdhagana" (Twelve Ordinances) in which he mentioned about building hospitals and appointing physicians. Hence, several eminent physicians were appointed in his court. Some of them have been mentioned below:
Hakim Momina Shirazi
Hakim Momina Shirazi was one of the most famous court physicians of Jahangir and Shah Jahan. He arrived in India during the last days of Jahangir in 1622 A.D.
Hakim Sadra was the son of the famous physician, Hakim Fakhr al-Din Shirazi. He belonged to the Shiite sect of Islam
The Hakim lived in Kashan in Iran. He arrived in India in the reign of Akbar but also served in the court of Jahangir and Shah Jahan
Hakim Ruhullah was a resident of Bharuch
. He was first appointed in court of Akbar and then entered in the court of Jahangir.
Hakim Fathullah Gilani
Hakim Fathullah Gilani was the son of Hakim Lutfullah Gilani. He came to India during the reign of Akbar and later served in the court of Jahangir. He had translated the Al-Qanun of Ibn Sina into Persian which was later published in India.
Emperor Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan took a keen interest about the medical facilities of his subjects. He appointed several eminent physicians in his court. Some of them have been mentioned below:
Hakim Muhammad Amin Gilani
Hakim Muhammad Amin Gilani was a native of Lahijan, a district of Gilan. He learnt medicine under Hakim Jibrail and Hakim Muhammad Baqar.
Hakim Nizam al-Din Ahmad Gilani
He was born in Gilan in 1586 A.D. to Abdullah al-Sadidi al-Shirazi. He learnt medicine with Mir Muhammad Baqar Damad and the famous theologian Shaykh Baha al-Din Muhammad Amuli. Ahmad Gilani came to India during the reign of Shah Jahan.
Hakim Dawud Taqarrub Khan
Hakim Dawud was the son of Hakim Inayatullah. He learnt medicine from Fakhr al-Din Shirazi. In 1644 he came to India during the reign of Shah Jahan but also served in the court of Aurangzeb
. He died in 1663.
Hakim Masih al-Mulk Shirazi
The Hakim was the pupil of Hakim Najm al-Din Abdullah bin Sharf Al-Din Hassan. He arrived from Deccan to the court of Shah Jahan. Later he migrated to Gujarat with Prince Murad. He died in Malwa.
Hakim Musammat Sati Al-Nisa
Hakim Musammat Sati Al-Nisa was a native of Amul. She was a lady physician in the court of Shah Jahan. She was appointed as Secretary to Queen Mumtaz Mahal.
Unani medicine developed significantly during the reign of Emperor Aurangzeb. Several hospitals and dispensaries were built during this period. The emperor appointed many noteworthy physicians in his courts that are noted below:
Hakim Abd al-Razzaq Mashrab
Hakim abd al-Razzaq Mashrab came to India from Isfahan during the reign of Emperor Aurangzeb.
Hakim Muhammad Amin Shirazi
Hakim Muhammad Amin Shirazi held a prominent position in the court of Aurangzeb. Owing to his medical proficiency and expertise he enjoyed royal treatment from the emperor.
Hakim Alawi Khan
The Hakim was born in Shiraz in 1670. He was the son of Muhammad Hadi. After completing his studies he came to India during the reign of Aurangzeb in 1700.
Hakim Shaykh Hussayn Shirazi
The Hakim was of Arab origin. He arrived in India during the reign of Aurangzeb and later served in the court of his son, Muhammad Azam Shah. He earned name and fame during the reign of Farrukh Sayr who conferred upon him the title of Hakim al-Mulk.
Hakim Dawud Isfahan
Hakim Dawud, a native of Isfahan was regarded as one of the top physicians in the court of Shah Abbas II. He came to India during the reign of Aurangzeb and is said to have built a beautiful mosque in Isfahan.
Emperor Muhammad Shah
During the reign of Muhammad Shah
several noteworthy physicians were invited to the court. Some of them are:
Hakim Muhammad Sharif Khan
The Hakim studied medicine under the guidance of Hakim Abid Sarhandi, Hakim Achhe Sahib, and his father Hakim Akmal Khan. Muhammad Shah appointed Sharif Khan as his Court physician. He gave him a jagir and conferred upon him the title of Ashraf-ul-Hukama. He composed few medical books such as Raj ul-Amraz, Talif-e-Sharifi, Ujala-e-Nafia, Hashia-e-Najisi, Tuhfa-e-Alamshahi, and Shareh Hummiyat-e-Qanun.
Hakim Shifai Khan Arshad
Hakim Shifai Khan Arshad, an eminent physician of Oudh is said to have written a medical text titled Shifa-ul-Famil. His prescription Khamira-i-Abresham is his greatest contribution to the Unani-Tibb medicine.
It can thus, be stated that the incredible inputs of the distinguished physicians in the Mughal period provided a thrust to the development of Unani Medicine both quantity and quality wise.