(Last Updated on : 22/04/2011)
Geography of earth in Garuda Purana
reveals that earth is divided into seven regions or dvipas. These seven divisions are Plakshadvipa, Jambudvipa, Kushadvipa, Shalmaladvipa, Pushkaradvipa, Krounchadvipa and Shakadvipa. These regions are surrounded by seven seas. The seas are Ikshu, Lavana, Sarpi, Sura, Dadhi, Jala, Dugdha.
Jambudvipa is again categorised into nine parts or varshas. They are Kimpurusha, Nabhi, Ilavrita, Harivarsha, Kuru, Ramya, Bhadrashva, Ketumala.and Hiranvana. Nabhivarsha later came to be known as Bharatavarsha. In the centre of Jambudvipa is Ilavritavarsha. Mount Sumeru lies in the middle of Ilavritavarsha. To the south of Mount Sumeru lie the mountains of Himalaya, Hemakuta and Nishada. To the north of Mount Sumeru lie the mountains of Nila, Shveta and Shringavana. Bhadrashvavarsha Mountain lies to the east of Mount Sumeru. The mountain of Hiranvanavarsha lies to the south-east of Mount Sumeru. Kimpurushavarsha and Bharatavarsha mountain ranges lie to the south of the mountain. The Harivarsha Mountain lies to the south-west, Ketumalavarsha lies to the west, Ramyakavarsha in the north-west and Khruvarsha to the north.
Bharatavarsha is again divided into nine parts. The eight sections are Tamravarna, Nagadvipa, Gabhastimana, Indradvipa, Kasherumana, Kataha, Varuna and Simhala. The ninth division is Sagaradvipa that is surrounded by ocean. The Kiratas live in the east of Bharatavarsha, in the west resides yavana, in the south the Andhras and the Turushkas in the north. Bharata varsha has seven mountain ranges and they are Malaya, Mahendra, Shuktimana, Sahya, Riksha, Paribhadra and Vindhya.
There are few kingdoms situated in the centre of Bharata varsha. They are Kuru, Panchala, Youdheya, Patacchara, Matsya, Kunti and Shurasena, Padma, Kashaya, Suta, Magadha, Chedi, Koshala and Videha are kingdoms of the east. In the south-east of Bharat varsha are the kingdoms of Banga, Pundra, Kalinga, Anga, Vidarbha and Mulaka. In the south west are the kingdoms of Pulinda, Jimuta, Nayarashtra, Ashmaka, Kamboja, Ghata, Karnata, Ambashtha, Daksinapatha, Lata, Dravida, Shaka and Anarta and Strimukha. In the west lie the kingdoms of Yavana, Sindhu, Nishada and Mathura. In the North West are the kingdoms of Tushara, Mandavya, Musha, Khasha, Mulika, Mahakesha and Mahanada. The kingdoms of Stana, Lambaka, Madra, Naga, Gandhara and Vahlika lie in the north. The seven underworlds under the earth are Atala, Nitala, Mahatala, Vitala, Patala Sutala and Gabhastimata. Snakes like daityas and the bhujangas reside there.