(Last Updated on : 19/09/2013)
Stone sculpture as an art has been given a different colour by the Indian tribals. Tribal art of sculpture is representative and symbolic in nature. The combination of form and content gave the representational art an emotional value and a pure formal aesthetic effect. Classical works were based on Indian mythology
. The main centres of Kalchuri sculptures were, Niwas, Binjholi, Kukaramath, Dhanoli and many more to be mentioned. Even today a large number of stone sculptures of classical period are seen. Sculptures of Lord Vishnu, Shambhu, Lord Ganesha
, Goddess Durga
and Surya are seen in temples. Some of these sculptures are kept in museum.
An analysis of the sculptural qualities indicate that the quality of relief work is inferior to that of the classical sculptures and most of the patterns and motifs carved in stones have primitive features. The stone used for the sculpture is rough and inferior. The patterns found are angular or square and ornamented with flower pot designs, leaf patterns and geometrical patterns. The symbolically represented pattern of five Naga heads is also a common subject of these sculptures. Primitive patterns are used frequently. Huge architectural decoration was not common in all tribal sculptures. One can see a mixture of classical sculpture and primitive motifs among the tribal stone sculptures.
There has been a gradual decrease of classical work in the tribal art. The tribals have developed a very high degree of creativity in art. Tribal sculptures are executed on stone, wood, iron and clay. For carving they have chosen stone and wood. Implements used are sharp angled boulders, adze and chisel. Most of the stones required for their sculptures are locally available. It is rough. Few of their sculptures are made of marble also.
Stone sculptures of the tribals are dedicated to their deities. There are many gods and goddesses who have no images. Their depiction is either symbolical or abstract. There are stone sculptures of certain Hindu deities such as Lord Shiva
, Goddess Durga, Lord Hanuman
and Lord Ganesha so many others are largely scattered in many tribal areas. These deities have received a tribal impact. Amongst the animal sculptures lion, bull, horse and serpent are common and either they are associated with some idol or have separate images of their own.