(Last Updated on : 27/08/2014)
In post-independence India, two factors had enduring influences on Indian tribal art
. These influences had brought it out of its purely ritualistic and iconographic confines and allowed it to conquer its own contemporary artistic space. These factors are the government's decision to promote policy to encourage a tribal art and to give paper to tribal communities, and the creation of museums where this art could be showcased. Artists were no longer confined to painting the walls of their homes. Paper, paint and other materials used by modern artists freed them physically, emotionally and psychologically to give expression to their existential problems.
It is a fact that in all stages of human and cultural development, artistic manifestations have occupied major positions. Probably the tribals are the most archaic of any living people. Technically tribal art concentrates mainly on three things; plastic design, exploitation of material and an anonymous artist creating within the framework of hide bound tradition.
Tribals also have an inherent aesthetic sense. One essential form is the existence in man of an aesthetic emotion which can be evoked by qualities inherent in objects or activities.
No doubt tribal emotion tends towards aesthetic value but because of their 'fundamental' characteristics it cannot be appreciated apart from its social significance.
Religious Influence on Indian Tribal Art
Art cannot be separated from religion as they have a strong affinity. Religion needs form and art is one medium of outstanding effectiveness. Tribal life is attached with the faith in gods and goddesses. They have a number of their own gods and goddesses. Their male and female deities are imaginary. Religious beliefs vary from family to family, from tribe to tribe. It is precisely in the realm of religious art that the God is still a God for the believers.
Influence of Spirit World on Indian Tribal Art
Spirit world exists mainly because of superstitious beliefs they inherit. Almost every tribal of this region is more or less connected with this belief. Indian tribes worship ancestors collectively on ceremonial occasions. The possession of spirits, ancestor's worship or the worship of Shakti has adopted several creative forms of art.
Magic and Witchcraft in Indian Tribal Art
For magic or witchcrafts sorcerers take help of mysterious symbols. These symbolic representations full of power cause the beautiful specimens of tribal magical art. They symbolise mysterious outer space as well as inner space it with their own motifs. The expression may be abstract or symbolic depending on the individual talent of the person.