Yanam or Yanaon is a town in the Union territory of Puducherry. It is located in Yanam district. Yanam has some 300 years old history and is well known as French Yanam even now although it was transferred to India in 1954. It forms a 30 square kilometer enclave in the district of east Godavari in Andhra Pradesh. Here most of the people are speaking Telugu and Tamil. Yanam is a unique blend of French and South Indian culture. During French rule, Tuesday market (Mangalavaram santa) at Yanam was very popular among nearby. Telugu people in Madras Presidency who used to visit in order to buy foreign and smuggled goods.
History of Yanam , Puducherry
Yanon/Yanam was a Dutch colony before French over took it in the year 1720.
In 1723, Yanam became the third French Colony established in India though it was officially confirmed in the year1751.
Again it was re-established completely in 1742, in the era of Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah. British occupied Yanam from 1793, by defeating French.
But still Yanam remained under French control till June 13, 1954, when it joined the republic of India by Indian military action. On November 1st, 1954, after long years of freedom struggle the four enclaves of Pondicherry, Mahe, Yanam and Karikal were transferred to the Indian Union.The Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru had visited Pundicherry on 16th January 1955 and after that India and France signed a treaty on August 16, 1962. In that treaty two countries have exchanged the instrument of rectification under which France had handed over to India full Sovereignty over the territories it held.
Pondicherry and other enclaves of Karikal, Mahe and Yanam came to be administered as the Union Territory of Pondicherry from July 1st, 1963.
Geography of Yanam , Puducherry
Yanam`s latitude is 16° 42`N- 16° 46`N and longitude is 82° 11`E - 82°19`E. the district lies in the delta of Godavari river. The town is situated where the river meets its tributary Koringa river, 9 kilometers from the Bay of Bengal in the Coromandel Coast.
Generally in Yanam climate is an oppressive summer with a good rainfall. Climate is always in high humidity over 70% and over 60% in the evenings through the year. It enjoys the benefit of both southwest and northeast monsoons. In Yanam the rainfall is an average of 1226mm. Temperatures in Yanam range from 27° C to 45° C in summer and in winter it is 17° C to 28° C.
Economy of Yanam , Puducherry
The major business areas in Yanam are Coconut dwelling, Rice Mills, Fishing. Around 3% of the population is working in government sectors.
Due to some relaxation in tax and other exemptions, in Yanam lots of business activities are happened. Nearly 200units were registered permanently with industries Department by providing employment to 2,650 persons.
The lines of activities of the existing industrial units in Yanam region are
Ceramic Wall and Floor Tiles,Shrimp Feed,T.V. Deflection Components,Solvent Oil extraction from Rice bran, Edible oil from Rice bran oil, SteariAcid, WhiteIce, Tread Rubber, Medical formulation, Aluminum Extrusions, Alloy steel castings, HDPE Oven Sacks, Lead sub Oxide, Battery cells,
Cold storage and Shrimp process White cement, Coir products, Capsules, Printing links, Micrographic Plates, Assembling of generators, Biscuits.
The office is implementing plans for implant training, handicrafts training and coir training.
Government and politics of Yanam , Puducherry
At present Yanam `s local administration is ruled under municipalities Act, 1973. Under this Act commissioner were appointed as the Chief Executive Heads of the municipalities, in different ranks according to grade of the municipalities.
At present Yanam municipality comprised of 10 municipal wards.
And Yanam`s legislative Administration comes under the Government of Union territory Act, 1963. Under Article 239 of the Indian Constitution, the president of India appoints an Administrator.
Yanam was allocated with one seat in Pondicherry legislative Assembly.
Transport in Yanam , Puducherry
Yanam is connected by road with all the major towns near by like Kakinada, Rajamundry and Vishakhapatnam. Chennai is 62 kilometer away and journey by road approximately take three and half an hour. Bangalore is 303 kilometer away from Yanam.
The nearest railway station is situated at Kakinada, which is only 26 kilometer.
Under Yaman Municipality, there are ten municipal wards. Apart from the town, Yanam has following villages under its jurisdiction:
Agraharam, Darialatippa, Jambhabanpeta and Kurasampeta.
Demographics of Yanam , Puducherry
As 2001 Census Ratio, Yanam had a population of 31,362. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. In Yanam 14% of the population are less than six years of age.
Yanam has an average literacy rate of 64%. Which is higher than the national average of 59.5% with male literacy at 68% and the female literacy at 60%.
Culture of Yanam , Puducherry
Yanam has a mixed culture of French and Dravidian. People of Yaman are more polite, generous and well cultured. Official language of Yanam is Telugu, French and Tamil.
The venkanna festival is celebrated in the month of March every year. The festival is observed for a month. Lord Venkateshwara Kalyanam is worshiped mainly in this festval. Ponnabahanam, Rath Yatra and Chakrateertham are the important events of the festival.
Catholic festival- Every year a major festival is celebrated for the godees Marriamma. Here the devotees are not only Christians but also Muslims and Hindus.
Fete De Pondicherry
- it is three days annual culture conducted by department of Arts and Culture of Govt. of Pondicherry.
- It was conducted for Lord Venkanna Babu, during September, which resemblance to Tirupati Brahmotsava. It is a ten days celebration.
Yanam Library is started on 23rd December 1963. At present Library abound seventeen thousand books and seven thousand reference books. It also contains various magazines.
Places to visit in Yanam , Puducherry
Yanam has got a very beautiful view. It is covered with full of Coconut trees.
The Dariyala Thipa Road
- this is actually the riverbank road of Gauthami Godavari. The road ends with Savitri Nagar Village, after it the road goes in to the sea.
- The Lord Satyanarayana Swamy`s temple is located in Annavaram. It is around 80 kilometers from Yanam towards east. It is second important temple after Andhra Pradesh`s Tirupathi.
- it is one of the jyotrilingas of India. The lord Shiva here called as Bheemeswara Swamy. The height of the linga is around 14 ft and it is one of the oldest temple of India. People believe it is built by Devatas. Manikayambuka Devi temple is also located in the same compound. It is one of the Asthadasa Pithas in India. This is famous for its Shakti chakra, where Parvati goddess is sitting. It is 16 kilometer away from Yanam.
- it is among one of the oldest temple of India. It is called second Kasi. The Lord Shiva is in the form of cock shape. Shiva is called `Kukuteswara Swamy` and Parvati is called `Raja Rajeswari`. In the same campus few other temples are also located such as, Goddess Durga`s temple that is also one of the AsthaDasa Pithas.
The Pitham of Lord Goddess lying here and hence the name comes `Puruhuthika Devi` and the town is called `Pitha Puram`. Sri Dattatreya Swamy`s temple is also there. It is very famous as Dattatreya`s next incarnation is Shri Pada Vallabha Swamy was born in Pithapuram only. It is around 50 kilometers from Yanam.