(Last Updated on : 28/01/2016)
The executive power of the Union extends to all matters with respect to which Parliament may make laws and to the exercise of all powers that accrue to the Government of India from any international treaty or agreement. It is important to remember that all executive power has to be exercised in accordance with the Constitution of India.
Parliamentary form of government has been introduced both at the Union and State levels in India. At the head of the Union there is a President. He is the chief executive. It has been stated in Article 53 (1) of the Constitution of India
: "The Executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the constitution." This implies that the President is the head of the Government. Article 74 (1) states: "There shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President in the exercise of his functions." Thus, there is a Union Council of Ministers to aid and advise the President.
The Union executive of India consists of the President, the Vice-President, and the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as the head to aid and advice the President.
President of India
Executive power of the Union is vested in the President, and is exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinates to him in accordance with the Constitution of India. The President is also the Supreme commander of defence forces of the Indian Union. The President summons, prorogues, addresses, sends messages to Parliament and dissolves the Lok Sabha
, promulgates Ordinances at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session, makes recommendations for introducing financial and money bills and gives assent to bills, grants pardons, reprieves, respites or remission of punishment or suspends, and remits or commutes sentences in certain cases.
Vice President of India
The Vice President of India ranks second in terms of executive authority. He is also elected both by the members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
. The system of election that is followed in the election of Vice President is that of proportional representation through the means of a single transferable vote. He is also elected for a term of five years. The Vice-President of India also serves as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. In absence of the President it is the duty of the President to carry out the duties of the President. Acting as the ambassador of the country is also one of the function of the Vice President of India.
Council of Ministers
Council of Ministers forms an important organ of the Executive. The Council of Ministers is headed by the Prime Minister. And it is the prime duty of the Council of Ministers to advise the President in exercise of his functions. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President, who also appoints other ministers on the advice of Prime Minister. The Council is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. It is the duty of the Prime Minister to communicate to the President all decisions of Council of Ministers relating to administration of affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation and information relating to them.
The Council of Ministers comprises Ministers who are members of Cabinet, Ministers of State (independent charge), Ministers of State and Deputy Ministers.