(Last Updated on : 14/08/2012)
Jharkhand is the youngest state of India and is situated in the eastern part of the country. A majority of the state's total population lives in the villages. The villages of Jharkhand are rich in their culture and tradition. A major portion of the rural population in Jharkhand comprises tribal communities and hence, Jharkhand is considered one of the major centres for tribal culture in India.
People from different religious communities live in the villages of Jharkhand. The major religious communities in the villages include Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Buddhist, etc. However, a significant portion of the rural population consists of various tribal communities. Jharkhand has one of the largest populations of tribals among all the states in India. The major tribes live in the villages of Jharkhand include Santhal, Oraon, Munda, Ho, Kharwar, Bhumij, Khariya, Lohara, Chik - Badaik, Souriya Pahariya, Kora, Parahiya, Kisan, Korwa, Banjara, Kol, Bediya, Mal Pahariya, Gond, Mahali, Chero, Asur, etc. All tribes follow their own religious rituals, practices, social customs, birth, death beliefs etc. They speak the languages like Santhali, Mundari, Kurukh, Khortha, Nagpuria, Sadri, Khariya, Panchparagnia, Ho, Malto, Karmali, Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, etc.
The villages of Jharkhand have a notable educational scenario. The children of the villages pursue primary education in the village primary schools. They pursue higher education in the colleges and universities, which are mostly established in the urban areas of Jharkhand to provide quality education to the people in the state. The governmental authorities have also taken many initiatives to better the educational scenario in the villages of Jharkhand.
Agriculture is one of the major occupations of people in the villages of Jharkhand. Many villagers are engaged in agricultural activities and the requirements of fruits, vegetables, flowers, medicinal and aromatic plants are met by the local production in the villages. As there is a favourable agro-climatic condition, the villagers can cultivate many varieties of vegetables and fruits. The major vegetables produced in the villages of Jharkhand include brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower, ladies-finger, onion, tomato, peas, potato, pumpkin, mushroom, capsicum, green chilly, etc. On the other hand, the major fruits include mango, litchi, guava, banana, papaya, lemon, hack fruit, amla, etc. Various kinds of crops are also cultivated in the villages of Jharkhand that include rice, oilseeds, wheat, potatoes, maize, pulses, etc.
Apart from agriculture, many villagers of Jharkhand are engaged in animal husbandry as well. There are many cow farms, goat farms, pig farms in the villages of Jharkhand. Many people also work in the food processing units that include those of fruit and vegetable preservation, milk and meat preservation and for processing of minor forest produce like timber and non-timber products. Mines and minerals industry is another major source of employment in the villages of Jharkhand. The villages are famous for having rich mineral resources like granite, gold, silver, uranium, mica, bauxite, graphite, quartz, feldspar, coal, iron, copper, magnetite, dolomite, fireclay, etc. Many villagers work in the mines and minerals industry.
The villages of Jharkhand are famous all over India for their rich and diverse culture. The tribal culture in the villages attracts many tourists every year. The people celebrate various types of fairs and festivals throughout the year. The major festivals celebrated in the villages of Jharkhand include Holi, Diwali, Ramnavami, Dussehra, Basant Panchami, Chhath Puja, Jityya Bhaiya Dooj, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha, Muharram, Christmas, Karma, Sohrai, Sarhul, Badna, Tusu, Id, Phalgun Shivratri, Kunda Mela, Kolhaiya Mela, Tutilawa Mela, Lawalong Mela, Belqada Mela, Sangharo Mela, etc. The villagers perform different forms of folk music during the festivals. The most popular folk music forms include Akhariya Domkach, Dohari Domkach, Janani Jhumar, Mardana Jhumar, Faguwa, Udasi, Pawas, Daidhara, Pahilsanjha, Adhratiya, Vinsariya, Pratkali, Jhumta, etc. Various folk dance forms are also performed by the villagers during the festivals. The notable dance forms include Nachni, Natua, Agni, Choukara, Matha, Sohrai, Lurisayro, Paika, Chaw, Jadur, Karma, Santhal, Jamda, Ghatwari, etc.
The villages of Jharkhand can easily be identified as one the most colourful villages in India. The cultural diversity and variety in the village society of Jharkhand are remarkable and that is why, many tourists visit the villages to experience the beauty of tribal life.