Haryana is a state in northern India that has a rich history and cultural tradition. The state was the cradle of the Indus Valley and Vedic Civilizations and is presently considered one of the most prosperous states in the Punjab region. The state has a total geographical area of 44,212 sq. km. A majority of the population lives in the villages. The villages of Haryana are considered the center of Haryana`s rich culture and they are actually preserving the cultural tradition. Enriched with a colourful culture and heritage, the villages of Haryana nicely blend modernity with the traditional ways of life.
People in the villages of Haryana mainly speak the languages of Hindi and Punjabi and they belong to different religions. Apart from Hindi and Punjabi, the other common languages taught and spoken in Haryana include Urdu, Sanskrit, Haryanavi, Bangaru or Jatu (language of Jats), etc. Haryana has always been a state of diverse races, cultures and faiths. The principal religious community living in the villages of Haryana is the Hindus. Apart from the Hindus, the other major religious communities include the Sikhs, Muslims, Christians, Jains, etc. The people from different religions celebrate their respective religious festivals with great passion, enthusiasm and traditional fervour. People from other religions also join them and enjoy the festive season. The village fairs and festivals are the platform for social communication.
The villages of Haryana have quite an impressive educational scenario. The government authorities have established several government primary schools in the villages of Haryana to provide the children proper education. After getting the primary and secondary education in their villages, the young students can pursue higher education in the colleges and universities located in the urban areas of the state. The authorities have also taken many initiatives to further improve the educational status of the villages of Haryana in near future.
Like most of the other states in India, the principal occupation in the villages of Haryana is agriculture. About 70% of the total population of Haryana is depended upon agriculture to earn their livelihood and this has made the state self-sufficient in food grains production. The state is also one of the top contributors of food grains to the Indian market. In fact, Haryana together with Punjab is called the `Grain Bowl` of India. There are two major types of crops namely Rabi and Kharif cultivated in the villages of Haryana, depending upon the two cultivation seasons. The most important Kharif crops cultivated in Haryana include rice, jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, jute, sugarcane, sesame, groundnut, etc. On the other hand, the major Rabi crops are wheat, tobacco, gram, linseed, rapeseed, mustard, etc. The other important crops cultivated in the villages of Haryana include barley, millets, pulses, oilseeds, corn, etc.
Apart from agriculture, many people in the villages of Haryana are also engaged in dairy farming. The extensive dairy farming has given the state the title of `Milk Pail` of India. The major dairy products produced in Haryana include Milk, Ghee, Butter, Dahi, Paneer, etc. Horticulture and vegetable farming have also been taken as occupation by many villagers in the recent years. The fruits like oranges, malta, kinnoo, mausami, ber (Indian Jujube), mangoes, etc. are cultivated quite extensively in the villages of Haryana. Besides agriculture and farming, the villagers in Haryana are also engaged in the industries like automobile, cement, dairy, sugar, textiles, paper, engineering, agro-based industries, electricity production, etc. They are involved in different small scale industries like making Agricultural Implements, Woolen Blankets, Industrial Thermometers, Foundry, Fabrication, Paper Board, the leather goods like Ban Rope Making, Niwar Manufacturing, pottery, embroidery, weaving etc. as well. Many villagers are also involved in the mines and minerals industries like Limestone, marble, sulphur, etc.
The villages of Haryana are quite rich in culture. The cultural heritage of the Haryana State goes back to the Vedic times and hence, the villages of the state are rich in folklore. The villagers have their own traditions and they observe the age old customs like meditation, Yoga and chanting of Vedic mantras, even today. There are numerous seasonal and religious festivals celebrated in the villages of Haryana and the festivals further glorify the rich culture of this region. The villagers in Haryana are master of several folk dance and musical forms. In fact, dance, music, poetry, painting, architecture, etc. are an integral part of the village life in Haryana. The traditional cultural and popular art forms found in the villages of Haryana include Saangs, dramas, ballads, songs, etc. The most widely celebrated festivals in the villages of Haryana include Holi, Diwali, Lohri, Basant Panchami, Gangore, Baisakhi, Teej, Nirjala Akadshi, Janmashtami, Sanjhi, Guggapir, Dussehra, Kurukshetra Festival, the Surajkund Crafts Mela, Mango festival, etc. Among these, the Teej festival that marks the arrival of monsoon is the most vibrant festival in Haryana.
Rich in cultural heritage and tradition, the villages of Haryana are quite famous all over India. People from different parts of the country love to visit the villages of Haryana for experiencing the cultural diversity and also to enjoy the vibrant fairs and festivals celebrated in Haryana.