India is acclaimed all over the world for its expansion in the field of technical education. A wide assortment of institutes offering professional courses is present in the country. Among the technical institutes offering higher education in the country IITs in India have been recognised for providing outstanding training and creating professionals. IITs or the Indian Institutes of Technology are a group of thirteen autonomous engineering and technology-oriented institutes of higher education which are established and declared as Institutes of National Importance by the Parliament of India. These institutes are to train scientists and engineers
IITs in India support the economic and social development of the country. The concept of these IITs is very old. According to history, the IIT system originated during the year of 1946. During those days Sir Jogendra Singh set up a committee whose task was to consider the creation of Higher Technical Institutions for post-war industrial development in India. The committee consisted of 22-member and was headed by Nalini Ranjan Sarkar, The committee felt that such institutes would produce researchers and academics. The institutes were expected to maintain high educational standards. Thus, the first Indian Institute of Technology was founded in May 1950 at the Hijli Detention Camp in Kharagpur.
The IITs in India were established all over and in the major cities such as Mumbai, Chennai, Kanpur, Delhi, Guwahati, Roorkee, Bhubaneswar, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, Patna, Punjab and Rajasthan. In addition to that the Government of India has more plans to add three more IITs, at Indore, Mandi and Varanasi. Most of the IITs were established with financial assistance and technical expertise from UNESCO. However, each IIT is an autonomous university linked to the others through a common IIT Council.
The students after completing the 10 + 2 education programme in science stream can opt for BTech course in the IITs in India. The common admission process for undergraduate admissions is through the Joint Entrance Examination, popularly known as IIT-JEE. Furthermore, Postgraduate programmes such as M. Tech are also offered to the students completing the four year science undergraduate course. Admissions for postgraduate level are done on the basis of the GATE, JMET, JAM and CEED.
IITs in India are institutes among the few institutes that offer degrees in technology (B. Tech.) at the undergraduate level as contrasting to the Bachelor of Engineering (BE) degrees awarded by most other Indian universities. The IIts have become Institutes of National Importance through special acts of Indian Parliament.