(Last Updated on : 27/01/2014)
Indian religious sculpture has been enriched by the vivid colours of several existing religious sculptures. Sikh sculptures are an integral part of these remarkable specimens. The Sikh sculpture and architecture represent a synthesis of the Muslim and native Hindu styles. However the final style that evolved from this amalgamation has its own separate identity. Features of the Sikh architectures include domes, pillars, intricate inlay works and others.
As far as Sikh religious architecture is concerned there are 4 kinds of buildings. These are square, rectangle, cruciform and octagonal. A gurudwara (Sikh place of worship) can even have as many as 9 storeys. The primary architectural element of a gurudwara is the gumbad (dome). The Sikh sculpture generally includes a floral design for the domes. An inverted lotus is, generally, seen in the form of domes. Besides this the 'jaratkari' or inlay work and plaster-of-Paris woks are recurrent feature in the Sikh sculptures. Vine, plant, flower, bird and animal motifs have been generously used to decorate the gurudwaras. These techniques have been employed to decorate both the interior and exterior of the buildings.
Varied materials ranging from gypsum plaster, brick, lime mortar, red stone and white marble have been used in the construction of the shrines. Marble, glass, color and metal are the other materials that have been used in large quantities while constructing the Sikh places of worship. A remarkable feature about these gurudwaras is that although they were built with religious purpose, these gradually took the shape of military fortifications.
The Sikh sculptures and architecture reflect the essence of the Sikh religion. Hence another important feature of Sikh religious art is its universal nature. The amalgamations from other styles are quite apparent in this mode of architecture. Other architectural elements in the Sikh monuments include elliptical arches, chattris, kiesks or pavilions, oriel window, carved brackets, overhanging eaves, paired pilasters, in-lay work, frescoes and heavy ornamentations.
The Sikh sculptures in the following monuments are worth noticing:
|Golden Temple, Amritsar
||Poanta Sahib, Sirmour
||Jai Jawan Nagar Gurdwara, Pune
||Manikaran Gurudwara, Manikaran
|Harmandir Takth Gurdwara, Patna
||Manikaran Sahib, Manikaran
||Nagpur Chawl Gurdwara, Pune
||Gurdwara Alamgir, Ludhiana
|Gurdwara Bangla Sahib, New Delhi
||Gurdwara Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Jammu
||Ramgodia Shivajinagar Gurdwara, Pune
||Sri Guru Singh Sabha Gurudwara, Bangalore
|Sis Ganj Gurdwara, New Delhi
||Nangli Sahib Gurdwara, Jammu
||Sapras Gurdwara, Pune
||Gurudwara Guru-ka-Lahore, Chandigarh
|Gurdwara Nanak Piao, New Delhi
||Nanak Jhera, Bidar
||Takhat Sachkhand Shri Hazur Abchalnagar Sahib, Nanded
||Gurudwara Kiratpur Sahib, Ropar
|Gurdwara Majnu Ka Tila, New Delhi
||Ganesh Peth Gurdwara, Pune
||Sri Guru Nanak Sat Sangh Sabha, Chennai
||Dashmesh Darbar, Pune
|Gurdwara Rakab Ganj, New Delhi
||Gurdwara Shri Guru Singh Sabha, Pune
||Guru Nanak Darbar, Pune