Lahore Conspiracy Case- 1915, Indian Freedom Movement - Informative & researched article on Lahore Conspiracy Case- 1915, Indian Freedom Movement
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Home > Reference > History of India > Modern History Of India > British Empire in India > Conspiracy Cases during British India > Lahore Conspiracy Case- 1915
Lahore Conspiracy Case- 1915, Indian Freedom Movement
Lahore Conspiracy Case had compelled the British to rise up and take note of the secretive activities of the radicals.

The fruitless adventure of the Ghadrites resulted in the arrest of the outstanding leaders. They were imprisoned in the Lahore Central Jail. Since the nucleus of their activities was Lahore and the trial was initiated there, this case was termed as the Lahore Conspiracy Case.

The Lahore Conspiracy Case (King Emperor v/s Anand Kishore and others) started on 26th April 1915, listing eighty-two individuals as criminated, including Rash Behari Bose (one of the seventeen absconders), and continued up to 13th September 1915. The principal charge against them was that they waged war against the king and wanted to overthrow the British government in India for the achievement of which they resorted to the enticement of Indian soldiers, collection of arms and ammunition, obtaining money by robbing government treasuries, committing murder of police officials and civilians, wrecking of railway trains and bridges, production of inflammatory literature and its circulation to spread rebellion.

The court was held in the Central Jail Lahore and the proceedings were held in camera. Even the relatives of the accused in the Lahore Conspiracy Case were not allowed to watch the proceedings. C. Beven Pitman was the government prosecutor and he was helped by Taj-ud-Din-Kureshi, a pleader. Raghunath Sahai appeared for Bhai Parmanand. Some of the Ghadr patriots engaged Hakumat Rai, but a substantial number of them did not employ the counsel. In order to exhibit the semblance of trial, the government employed the counsel for them. The prosecution examined 404 witnesses and 282 documents were produced in evidence. Two hundred and twenty-eight witnesses appeared for the defence. Fifty defence witnesses were also summoned from abroad, but the court did not enforce their attendance.

Sohan Singh Bhakna, Pt. Jagat Ram, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Vishnu Ganesh Pingle, Jagat Singh, Harnam Singh and Prithvi Singh Azad, owned the task of planning, organising and running the party. Jagat Ram filed a written statement exposing the British rulers. He also argued his own case. Kartar Singh Sarabha and VG. Pingle declined to argue at all either personally or through counsel.

Judgement of the Lahore Conspiracy Case was announced on 13th September 1915. Twenty-four of them, including Kartar Singh Sarabha and Sohan Singh Bhakna were condemned to death. They accepted the judgement courageously. Twenty-seven were sentenced to transportation for life, six were sentenced to term-imprisonments and four were acquitted. Jawala Singh who was also known as `Potato-king` from America was one of those sentenced to deportation for life. He questioned the judges for awarding him a lesser sentence.

Kartar Singh - The Lahore Conspiracy Case- 1915, Indian Freedom MovementKartar Singh was a man of rare rationality. The death sentence did not overtake the love of the country in the heart of Singh. While coming out of the court, after hearing the death sentence, he is known to have sung a challenging song in sporting spirit.

The sentences awarded for the Lahore Conspiracy Case were not only too ruthless and revengeful, but also inconsistent to the offences allegedly committed and even incomparable to each other. The public strongly protested against the irrational judgement and it was highly criticised in the national press too. Lord Hardinge was appalled at the public outburst. He came to Lahore. The formalities for hanging of twenty-four convicts were completed. Even their relatives had had their last meetings with them. Even in the last night they were to be hanged, they were singing poems of Ghadr Di Gunj. Lord Hardinge intervened and stayed the execution. He converted the death sentence of seventeen convicts to life imprisonment. When the seven patriots whose death sentence was maintained, namely Kartar Singh Sarabha, Vishnu Ganesh Pingle, Jagat Singh Sursingh, Harnam Singh Sialkoti, Bakshish Singh Gilwali, Surain Singh s/o Gur Singh and Surain Singh s/o Isher Singh, both of village Gilwali were being taken to the gallows, their companions sang in unison hailing their sacrifices and expressed their resolve to continue the struggle.

They kissed the gallows in the Central Jail Lahore on 17th November 1915 and attained martyrdom.

Forty patriots, after their conviction and sentence in the Lahore conspiracy case were transported to the Andamans.

The diverse locations and the mode of journey adopted by these forty ghadr patriots, for their arrival in India to wage war against the British, is worth noticing.

They are as follows:
  • Bhan Singh, aged 40 years, son of Sawan Singh, Jat of village Sunet, Police Station Ludhiana. He had landed in Calcutta on 29.10.1914 travelling by S.S. Korea and Tosha Mam.


  • Bishen Singh, aged 30 years, son of Jawala Singh, Jat of village Dadher, Police Station Sarhali, District Amritsar. He had reached India on 07.01.1915 by S.S. Katana Maru.


  • Bishen Singh, aged 30 years, son of Kesar Singh, Jat of village Dadher, Police Station Sarhali, District Amritsar. He had also travelled by Koma Gata Maru and landed in Calcutta in September, 1914.


  • Chuhar Singh, aged 40 years, son of Buta Singh, Jat of village Lilan, Police Station Raikot, District Ludhiana. He had returned from Hong Kong four years prior to the occurrence.


  • Gurdit Singh, aged 50 years, son of Gurmukh Singh, Barber of village Sursingh, Police Station Khalra, District Lahore. He reached India through S.S. Salamis on 20.11.1914.


  • Gurmukh Singh alias Anup Singh, aged 30 years, son of Hoshna K. Singh, of village Lalton, District Ludhiana. He had travelled by Koma Gata Maru and reached Calcutta on 26.09.1914.


  • Harnam Singh Tunda, aged 30 years, son of Gurdit Singh, Jat, of village Kotla, Police Station Hariana, District Hoshiarpur. He left San Francisco in October, 1914 either by Saviera Manchuria or Korea.


  • Hazara Singh, aged 28 years, son of Bela Singh of village Dadher, Police Station Sarhali, District Amritsar. He reached India from Manila by S.S. Katana Maru on 7.1.1915.


  • Hirde Ram, aged 21 years, son of Gajjan Singh, Rajput of village Mandi, goldsmith.


  • Indar Singh Granthi, aged 23 years, son of Ala Singh of village Mala, Police Station Jagraon, District Ludhiana. He went to America in August 1913 from Hong Kong and returned to Calcutta by S.S. Korea and Tosha Maru.


  • Inder Singh, aged 35 years, son of Mula Singh, Jat, of village Sursingh, Police Station Khalra, now District Amritsar. He had come to India by S.S. Korea.


  • Jagat Ram, aged 40 years, son of Dittu Mai, Brahman, of village Hariana, District Hoshiarpur.


  • Jawand Singh, aged 32 years, son of Uttam Singh, Jat of village Sursingh, Police Station Khalra, now District Amritsar. He had arrived in India by S.S. Nam Sang on 23.01.1915.


  • Jawala Singhh alias Santa Singh, aged 45 years, son of Kanhiya Singh of village Thathian, Police Station Beas, District Amritsar. He had reached Lahore on Tosha Mam on 29.10.1914.


  • Kala Singh, son of Ghasita Singh, Jat of village Sursingh, Police Station Khalra, now District Amritsar. He had reached India on 23.01.1915 by S.S. Nam Sang.


  • Kala Singh, son of Gulab Singh, aged 55 years, carpenter from Amritsar.


  • Kehar Singh, aged 62 years, son of Nihal Singh, of village Marhana, Police Station Sarhali, District Amritsar. He had reached India from America by S.S. Katana Mam on 07.01.1915.


  • Kesar Singh, aged 40 years, son of Bhoop Singh, Jat of village Thathgarh, Police Station Tarn Taran, District Amritsar. He had come by S.S. Korea or Tosha Maru from Shanghai.


  • Khushal Singh, aged 22 years, son of Suchet Singh, Jat of village Padri, District Amritsar.


  • Kirpal Singh, aged 18 or 19 years, son of Narain Singh of village Bhopa Rai, District Ludhiana. He was a student of Khalsa School, Ludhiana.


  • Lai Singh, aged 30 years, son of Mihan Singh of village Bhure, Police Station Taran Taran, District Amritsar.


  • Madan Singh, aged 28 years, son of Mai Singh, Carpenter of village Gaga, Police Station Barki, District Lahore.

  • Mangal Singh, aged 31 years, son of Sarmukh Singh of village Lalpur, Police Station Tarn Taran, District Amritsar. He had travelled to India by Korea.


  • Nand Singh, aged 32 years, son of Ram Singh, Jat of village Kaila, Police Station Raikot, District Ludhiana. He had reached India by S.S. Nam Sung on 13.10.1914.


  • Nidhan Singh, aged 60 years, son of Sunder Singh, Jat of village Chuga, Police Station Dharamkot, District Ferozepur. He had come from San Francisco by S.S Korea on 29.08.1914. He had left Nagasaki by ship for Shanghai and arrived at Colombo by S.S. Mashi Maru on 25.10.1914.


  • Parma Nand Bhai, aged 40 years, son of Bhai Tara Chand, Brahman of Karyala, District Jhelum.


  • Parma Nand-II, aged 28 years, son of Ghyia Parshad, Kayasth of village Sukharda Kharka, District Hamirpur U.R He had left for America, but he commenced a back-journey from Yokohama by S.S. Korea and reached Calcutta on 29.10.1914 by S.S. Tosha Maru.


  • Piara Singh alias Karam Singh, aged 32 years, son of Lakha Singh of village Lageri, Police Station Mahilpur, District Hoshiarpur. He had travelled to India by S.S. Korea and S.S. Fau Sang on 16.10.1914.


  • Pirthi Singh, aged 26 years, son of Shadi Ram of village Sabbu, district Patiala. He had travelled to India by S.S. Korea or S.S. Tosha Maru.


  • Ram Saran Das, aged 27 years, son of Sant Ram, Khatri of Kapurthala.


  • Roda Singh, aged 43 years, son of Wasawa Singh, Jat of village Roda, Police Station Bagha Purana, District Ferozepur. He sailed from Shanghai through S.S. Mashima Maru and arrived at Colombo on 25.10.1914.


  • Rulia Singh, aged 36 years, son of Jagat Singh, Jat of village Sarabha, Police Station Raikot, District Ludhiana. He had returned to India by S.S. Korea and Tosa Maru.


  • Sawan Singh, aged 45 years, son of Khushal Singh of village Chabba, Police Station Sadar, Amritsar.


  • Shiv Singh, aged 29 years, son of Munshi, Jat, of village Kosla, Police Station Hariana, District Hoshiarpur. He returned to Calcutta by S.S. Korea and Tosha Maru.


  • Sher Singh, aged 32 years, son of Kesar Singh, Jat of village Vein Poin, Police Station Tarn Taran, District Amritsar. He had come to India from Canada in August, 1914 by S.S. Canada Maru. He reached India from Hong Kong on board S.S. Tosha Maru.


  • Sohan Singh, aged 50 years, son of Karam Singh, Jat of village Bhakna, Police Station Gharinda, District Amritsar. He returned from Hong Kong by S.S. Nam Sang to Calcutta.


  • Udham Singh, aged 26 years, son of Mewa Singh, Jat of village Kasel, Police Station Gharinda, District Amritsar. He had returned to India by S.S. Korea and Tosha Maru.


  • Wasakha Singh, aged 32 years, son of Dyal Singh of village Dadher, Police Station Sarhali, District Amritsar. He had reached India on 07.01.1915 by S.S. Katna Maru.


  • Wasawa Singh, aged 38 years, son of Mihan Singh, Jat of Gillwali, District Amritsar. He reached India on 20.11.1914 by S.S. Salamis.


  • Rur Singh, aged 38 years, son of Attar Singh, resident of village Chuhar Chak, Police Station Moga. He reached India by S.S. Korea and Tosha Maru.


  • They were taken to the Andamans in lots. But a group of eighteen, including Baba Wasakha Singh left Calcutta on 7th December 1915 by ship S.S. Maharaja and reached the Andamans by 10th December 1915.

    Four other additional Lahore Conspiracy Cases were instituted. Many including Dr. Mathra Singh received capital punishment, while the others were awarded life imprisonment and short term sentences. But none were sent to the Andamans.

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    Lahore Conspiracy Case- 1915    
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