(Last Updated on : 23/09/2011)
Dadra and Nagar Haveli is a union territory situated in Western India. Nagar Haveli is crammed between Maharashtra
. Dadra is an enclave lying a few kilometres north of Nagar Haveli in Gujarat. Silvassa is the capital of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The Daman Ganga River flows through the territory. It is a favourite tourist spot of tourists. The long network of trees, streams, rivers and the tranquil climate makes it an excellent holiday destination.
History of Dadra & Nagar Haveli
In AD 1262, the Kohli chieftains of the Dadar and Nagar Haveli were defeated by Rajput invaders and the region became under their clutches and they ruled Ramnagar, which was a small state that included Nagar Haveli in its territory. They dominated the region till the mid-18th century, when the Marathas acquired Nagar Haveli.
After prolonged encounters between the Portuguese and Marathas, the Maratha Government assigned aggregate revenue of Rs. 12,000 to the Portuguese as compensation to ensure their friendship. Their aim was to keep away from the English and to procure their support against the Mughals. The Marathas established friendship with the Portuguese and signed with them a treaty in 1779. According to this historic treaty of friendship, the Maratha-Peshwa agreed that the Portuguese would be allowed to collect revenues from Dadra and Nagar Haveli, which consisted of 72 villages, then known as parganas. This treaty was signed to the extent that the Portuguese will only collect the revenue in compensation for their loss of a warship called 'Santana' which had earlier been captured by the Marathas but not surrendered to the Portuguese inspite of their many entreaties.
The Portuguese ruled the region till it was liberated on 2 August 1954. The people of Dadra and Nagar Haveli established a free administration, which was merged in to union of India in 1961. On 11 August 1961, Dadra and Nagar Haveli were merged with the Indian Union as a Union Territory. As per the Constitutional amendments at all India level, Dadra and Nagar Haveli District Panchayat and 11 village Panchayats were constituted.
Geography of Dadra & Nagar Haveli
The Dadra and Nagar Haveli are wedged between Maharashtra and Gujarat. Its capital is Silvassa. It's located on the western side of the foot hills of the Western Ghats and about 40% of the geographical area is covered with forests. It lies between the parallels of 20 degrees and 20 degrees 25' of latitude north and between the meridian 72 degrees 50' and 73 degrees 15' of longitude. The major river Damanganga and its tributaries criss-cross the U.T and drain into Arabian Sea
at Daman. The west, north and south of the territory is surrounded by the Valsad district
of Gujarat and towards the south and southeast by Thana and Nasik districts of Maharashtra. Towards the northeast it is surrounded by the ranges of Sahyadri Mountains (Western Ghats). The land has a hilly terrain and the soil is rich and fertile. The river Daman-Ganga and its three tributaries intersect the terrain. The climate of the region is warm and moist during the summer months but less warm during the monsoon months. The southwest monsoon is from June to September. During this time there is profuse rainfall. The rainfall is about 250 to 300cm. The winter months are generally pleasant.
Economy of Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Agriculture is the main economy of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The region has about 23,627 hectares under cultivation. 40% of the geographical area is covered with forests. The major occupation of Adivasis who represent 79 percent of the total population is agriculture. The agriculture is dependent on the amount of rainfall. The main crops cultivated here are paddy, ragi, small millets, jowar, wheat, tuvar, oilseeds, sugarcane and pulses. Brinjal, tomato, cabbage, and cauliflower are the main vegetables grown here. Forestry is an important economic resource of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. It consists of teak, sadra, khair, mahara, sesame. Forests constitute about 43 percentage of the total geographical area. A forest-based industry producing 'Katha' out of Khair wood has also been set up. Besides agriculture, Government is running a poultry breeding / demonstration farm. There is a well equipped veterinary Hospital and two veterinary centres. The farm animals include cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and other animals.
There are four industrial estates in the territory. Manufacturing is the main economy in Dadra and Nagar Haveli as the taxes are low as there is no excise duty. The products manufactured here are spectacle frame, flooring tiles, art silk fabrics, chemicals, detergent powder, electrical fixtures, watches etc. The items that are exported are forest products, rubber foam etc. There are about 118 lift irrigation schemes at various places of the territory. The entire territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli are electrified.
Administration of Dadra and Nagar Haveli
The territory consists of two sections: Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Dadra consists of three villages and Nagar Haveli consists of 69 villages. The headquarters of the district Dadar and Nagar Haveli is Silvassa
Demographics of Dadra and Nagar Haveli
According to the 2011 census the population is 342853. This territory is the homeland of various tribes as Dhodia, Kokna and Varli. The Dhodias and Dublas are mainly confined to the Northern part of the territory whereas the Koknas and Varlis and found all over. The languages spoken by the people are Hindi, Marathi and Gujarati. The literacy rate is 77.65%. The male literacy is 86.46% and the female literacy is 65.93%.
Culture of Dadra and Nagar Haveli
The major population constitutes the tribals. The major folk dances are Tarpa, Dhol, Bhavada and Gherria. All feasts of Hindus, Muslims and Christians are celebrated in this territory. But the tribal celebrations differ. The Varli and Kokna tribals celebrate Diwali
in the name of Barash. Kokna tribes celebrate Akha teej where ladies are the main participants. Divaso is celebrated by Dhodia and Varli tribes. Raksha Bandhan
is celebrated by Dhodia. Other festivals are Bhawada amongst Varli and Koli tribes, Kali Puja
by all tribes after harvesting of crops and Gram Devi is before harvesting.