(Last Updated on : 30/03/2009)
Chandigarh is the richest city city in India with a per capitia income of Rs 67,370 and Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita. Chandigarh is also known as Shopper's Paradise. Nehru described Chandigarh as "unfettered by the traditions of the past, a symbol of the nation's faith in the future."
Origin of name of Chandigarh
The name of Chandigarh was obtained from the name of the temple Chandi Mandir, which was located at the site were the city is now located. The deity of this temple was 'Chandi', the goddess of power and there was a fort beyond the temple, known as 'garh'.
Thus the name of the Chandigarh was partly derived from the name of the deity of the temple 'Chandi' and the fort 'garh'. Thus, the name Chandigarh was evolved and the meaning of Chandigarh means fort of the goddess of strength.
History of Chandigarh
In 1947, the British India was partitioned into India and Pakistan.Unfortunately, the region of Punjab was also split between India and Pakistan. Then there was a need for a new capital for Punjab, as the old capital 'Lahore' became part of Pakistan during the partition. Of all the town schemes put forward, Chandigarh project quickly assumed prime significance because of Jawaharlal Nehru's personal interest in it. In 1948, under the leadership of chief architect Mr. P.L. Verma the construction of this capital city began.
Geography of Chandigarh
Chandigarh lies in the Northern part of India. It is located in between Punjab and Haryana and shares its borders with the Haryana in the south and Punjab in the north. It covers an area of approximately 114 km². It is located near to the foothills of the Shivalik range of the Himalayas
in Northwest India. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are 30.74° N 76.79° E. It has an average elevation of 321 metres. The surrounding districts are of Mohali and Ropar in Punjab and Panchkula in Haryana. The boundary of the state of Himachal Pradesh
are not too far from its north.
Economy of Chandigarh
The major population of Chandigarh consists of people who are serving government or those people who are retired from government service. Chandigarh has a well developed market as well as a banking infrastructure. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys and machinery. There are other industries that are related to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. Chandigarh is the richest city city in India with a per capitia income of Rs 67,370. The impact of this high per capita income can be seen in the increased consumption of electricity, petrol and mobile phone and Internet connectivity. The IT Park of Chandigarh is making attempts to break into the IT world. multinational corporations including .Quark, Infosys, Dell, Ranbaxy have offices in the suburbs of Chandigarh.
There are the presence of three major offices of trade promotin organizations in Chandigarh. The 3 are:
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI)
The PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry ( PHDCCI) and
The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)
Government and Politics of Chandigarh
The administration of Chandigarh lies in the responsibility of the President of India acting through the Administrator. The administrator acts as the Financial Commissioner, thus enjoying the financial powers of the state. The major departments that come under the government section are Industries, Education, Finance, Excise & Taxation, Vigilance, Sports, Animal Husbandry, Health, Social Welfare, Rural Development, Environment, Engineering, Urban Planning, District Administration, Tourism, Transport, Food & Supplier and Housing.
Transport of Chandigarh
Chandigarh has a well-developed network of public transport but most of the inhabitants of Chandigarh use their own vehicles to travel within the city. This includes a large number of two wheelers as motorcycles and scooters. Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita. There are wide and well maintained roads with ample parking lot. Public buses run under the Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (CTU), which provides local transport as well as inter-state transport services. People use rickshaws for travelling short distance. School-going children, housewives and the elderly usually commute by auto. The heavy traffic roads have rickshaw lanes.
Chandigarh is well connected by road. The two main National Highways (NH) connecting Chandigarh with the rest of the country are: NH 22 and NH 21. Chandigarh has two Inter-State Bus Terminus (ISBT), one for the North, East and South located in Sector 17, which has regular bus services to most major cites in Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand
. Chandigarh has a small railway station. Regular train connections are available to the national capital and to some other junctions like Kalka, Ambala
, Bhiwani, Howrah, and Sri Ganganagar. Chandigarh also has a domestic airpor. The regular flights that operate from here are Jet Airways, Air Deccan and Indian Airline.
Demographics of Chandigarh
Chandigarh had a population of 808,796 as per the 2001 Census. About 56% of the population constitute males and females about 44%. The sex ratio is 777 females for every 1,000 males. Chandigarh has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 76% and female literacy of 68%.
The major religious groups are Hinduism
, and Christianity
. Hindus constitute about 75.5%, Sikhs about 21%, Muslims about 2.72% and Christians about 0.78% of the population. The major languages spoken by the people are Hindi
. Some also uses English. A very small group of people uses Urdu.
Education of Chandigarh
Chandigarh is keen in providing education to all students irespective of class, caste, sex, religion or sect. The main educational institutes are the Punjab University, the Punjab Engineering College and the Government College of Arts. Among the new teaching and research institutions established in Chandigarh in the decade of the 1960s are the Postgraduate Institution of Medical Education and Research and College of Architecture. There are number of specialized institutions have been established here, making the city a base for higher education.
Festivals of Chandigarh
The people of Chandigarh are secular beings. They celebrate all festivals ansd rituals. All religious days are celebrated and all people enjoy irespective of caste or religion. There are 46 temples, 21 Gurudwaras, 4 churches and 4 mosques. There are people of different religions living here. They are Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Sikhs, Janis, Buddhists and others. Out of which, Hindus and Sikhs form the majority population. All people live here in harmony and happiness. Throughout the year, the people celebrate many Festivals, Exhibitions, Carnivals and Fashion Shows.
Flora and Fauna of Chandigarh
The flora found here are terrestrial & aquatic plants, major ones being Dalbergia, Prosopis, Albizzia, Ficus, Azolla, Hydrilla, Nelumbo, Typha, Phragmites, Zizyphus Mauritiana, Syzgium cumini, Ipomoea aquatica, Cyprus and Grasses. The fauna includes animals like Smooth Indian Otter, Hog Deer, Wild Boar, Flying Fox, Wildcat, Squirrel, Fruitbat, and Common Mongoose. A variety of birds are found here like Great Crested Grebe, White Necked Stork, Adjutant Stork, Glossy Ibis, Pintail, Gadwall, Eastern Purple Heron, Brahminy, Mallard, Wigeon, Spotbill Duck, Coot, Tailor Bird, Peafowl, and Ruddy Sheduck.
The reptiles and amphibians found here are 7 species of turtle and 4 species of snakes, Frogs, Tortoise, and Toads. The wetlands are also home to fishes. The wetland waters are a natural habitat for 16 kinds of fishes. The important ones are Abeo, Catla, Puntius, Cirrhina, Channa, Mystus, Notopterus, Cyperinus, Ambasis ranga. Some of the endangered species found here are Indian Skimmer, Yellow-eyed Pigeon, Rufous-vented Prinia, Scaup Duck, Falcated Teal, Testudine turtle, etc.
Media in Chandigarh
The major newspapers of Chandigarh are Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, The Hindusthan Times, The Times of India, Parvasi, The Financial World, The Tribune etc.
Sports in Chandigarh
The people of Chandigarh are interested in sports like, hockey
, badminton, volleyball, cricket
, and badminton
. The people are also interested in adventure sports like paragliding, trekking, water sports, yachting, boating, rowing, sailing
. Chandigarh has stadium for football, tennis, badminton, athletics
etc. Chandigarh has the distinction of having maximum number of tennis courts in the world. There is also a sports complex that affords facilities for hockey, badminton and volleyball.
Chandigarh airport is 12 kms. from the City Centre. Jet Airways and Indian Airlines connect Chandigarh with, Delhi, Leh and Amritsar.
Chandigarh Railway Station is about 8 kms. from the City Centre in Sector 17. Shatabdi Express and Himalayan Queen offers two train connections every day between Chandigarh and Delhi.
Nearly 71 per cent of the 10 lakh population is accounted for by the service sector, which the administration says is pushing up the per capita income. On the other hand infant mortality and death rate have gone down. Add to this, the beauty that surrounds Chandigarh - tree-lined boulevards, proximity to mountains, a lake and the cleanliness, all make it a favourite candidate for the rich. "The city is right at the foothills of the Himalayas, the per capita income is high here. Everything that one wants is here," says Hot Millions restaurant Director Aman Bir Singh.
The city boasts of a better lifestyle and more leisure opportunities for the young, who are understandably delighted. Not only are the levels of education high, the city is fast becoming an IT hotspot, with the Chandigarh Technology Park attracting an investment of Rs 400 crore so far and projects an export of about Rs 1000 crore in the next three years. The definite makings of the richest city in India are also visible in the light of the fact that Chandigarh is the capital of two of the wealthiest states in the country - Punjab and Haryana. And it's not only youngsters who are thinking of making Chandigarh their home, pensioners and landlords are also making a beeline for the city.
More on Chandigarh
Costumes of Chandigarh
Festivals of Chandigarh
For complete business listing of Chandigarh visit Chandigarh Yellowpages