Pratap Singh Kairon was born on October 1, 1901 in the village of Kairon in Punjab.He was the son of Nihal Singh who started spreading education among the women in the Punjab province. Pratap Singh Kairon graduated from Khalsa College, Amritsar.After that he moved to U.S and did M.A from the University of Michigan.After returning to India, he started publishing an English journal The New Era in 1932.At that time Pratap Singh Kairon also entered into the politics as a member of the Shiromani Akali Dal.Afterwards he joined Indian National Congress.For active participation in the Civil disobedience movement he was arrested and was subsequently imprisoned by the British Government in the year of 1932.On his release from the jail in 1937 he was selected as the member of Punjab Legislative Assembly as the candidate of Akali Dal. Pratap Singh Kairon served as the general secretary of the Punjab Provincial Congress from 1941 to 1946.British rulers again sent him behind the bar for his involvement in the Quit India Movement in 1942.He was the member of Constituent Assembly of India.
After independence, Pratap Singh Kairon served as the Rehabilitation Minister, Development Minister and Chief Minister of Punjab from time to time.As the Rehabilitation Minister he successfully rehabilitated millions of refugees.He played major role in the land reforms of Punjab. Pratap Singh Kairon set up Punjab Agricultural University.He is also remembered for his role in the Green Revolution.His huge effort led to the creation of Faridabad insdustrial township. He established three engineering colleges and a polytechnic in every district of Punjab. In his tenure, primary and middle school education was free and compulsory.For his immense contribution for the cause of devolopment of Punjab, he was called as the "father of modern Punjabi politics". On February 6, 1965, he was assassinated .